Rearing small ruminants is crucial. Sheep and goats are a livelihood for many of the world’s poorest people. An estimate of 60% lives in Africa. Sheep and goats are thus food suppliers and income-generating activities to vulnerable people in urban and rural areas. Small ruminants are a way for many people, especially women and other vulnerable people, to escape poverty (Diallo, 2006 and FAO, 2012). It helps them to find a way to build wealth or savings. This is more often the case in villages. Theses localities are away from financial services. In addition to dairy and meat products, rural people find an important source of manure for soil fertility. These natural fertilizers improve crops quality.
Actually, sheep and goats are most often used as means of restoring flocks in the aftermath of environmental, climatic and political shocks. Sheep and goats are thus an important component in crisis and emergency coping mechanisms (IMPD / IUCN, 2010). Building on this, more and more African countries such as Central Africa, Ethiopia, Burkina Faso, Somalia and Mali are mapping out projects and programmes funded by technical partners. This approach works out to strengthen the resilience of vulnerable people who are affected by crises such as drought, floods and wars. This thereby improves food and nutrition security of vulnerable people (LEGS, 2014).
Like most of these countries, Cameroon enjoys a high and diversified production potential of small ruminants. But high mortality rates (between 20% and 50%) severely limit herd productivity. One of the causes is ‘’peste des petits ruminants’’. This situation explains the contrast of low availability of meat and dairy products among the Cameroonian population (consumption of 13 kg of meat and 9.5 kg of milk per inhabitant per year).
Faced with this threat to food security and the resilience of poverty-stricken communities, FAO and OIE initiated the Global PPR Eradication Programme (GEP/ PPR). The goal is to rid the world of the disease by 2030. A Global Strategy for Control and Eradication, SMCE, of ‘’Peste des Petits Ruminants’’ has been adopted with regional, subregional and national variations. On the continent, the African Union-Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, AU-IBAR, is the operational body for implementing this strategy. In Central Africa, it is the Economic Commission for Livestock, Meat and Fishery Resources, CEBEVIRHA. It operates alongside the two Regional Economic Communities, RECs. They are the Central African Economic and Monetary Community, CEMAC, and the Central African Economic Community, ECCAS.